Dear Indian Classical Musicians, Either Use a Tanpura Or Disassociate With Your Lineage!

In an ecosystem running on blatant lies and dogma, someone has to call a spade a spade. I am on that task today. If we make a list of fields where pride of tradition and culture of telling majestic stories of tradition and lineage prevails, Indian Classical Music would be in top five if not on the top. Sadly, students of music pickup myths and anecdotes much faster than actual music. It’s not a coincidence that musicians (even senior ones) these days enjoy telling stories more than presenting quality music.

While there are many things to talk about, today I will be focusing myself on Tanpura. Everyone calls it the foundation of Indian Classical Music but very few actually end up using it. Look at this pic of Mogubai Kurdikar. Clearly, she is old. At this point, she has stopped performing as well. She had mastered the notes to such an extent that she actually did not need a Tanpura when this picture was clicked. But still, she is using one 🙂

Photo credits : I am really not aware. Please let me know and I will put the name here.

And then, here is one more musician who had stopped performing at an early stage of her career but had influenced (and even taught I guess) three giants : Lata Mangeshkar, Kishori Tai and Kumar Ji. She is Anjanibai Malpekar. Again with a Tanpura at very old age!

I have heard that Kumar Ji had a basic rule : He would not accept a concert if he could not manage a pair of Tanpura. Ustad Amir Khan often ditched the tradition of using two Tanpuras and instead used three. Ustad Abdul Karim Khan was so particular about javhari of his Tanpura that he started using a kurta made using the thread which was his preferred thread for adjusting javhari.

Well if you think that only vocalists used Tanpuras, I have got some pictures of instrumentalists using Tanpura :

Photo Credit : Raghu Rai. To know more :

Not one, two. Three Tanpuras. That too, full scale Tanpuras. Not the Tanpuris.

It seems as if today’s musicians are so seasoned and have mastered such a grip on swaras that they don’t need the crutches of Tanpura. Poor Mogubai, Anjanibai, Kumarji, Ravishankarji Ali Akbarji and probably all other such maestros…practiced music for so many hours a day for so many years and could not reach the stage today’s many young musicians have reached.

I am not getting sentimental about Tanpura. I am not putting it on a pedestal. As a student of vocal music, I have seen quality of my own music go down when there is no acoustic Tanpura. As a listener of music, I have seen quality of music of many musicians (including today’s senior maestros) dwindle down considerably when they ditch an acoustic Tanpura. Of course, there is considerable audience for mediocre music. I am not talking about music that wins claps but music that leaves a lasting impact.

Why is Tanpura so integral to Indian Classical Music? First of all, Indian Classical Music is not static. The ability of taking birth in that very moment is integral and inseparable attribute of Indian Classical Music. An acoustic Tanpura, which actually gets tuned slightly different every time you tune it is the living canvas. We need not only a canvas but a living one. Electronic Tanpura is indeed a canvas but a dead one.

Look at it this way – can one compare the taste of home cooked fresh food with ready-to-cook packaged meal?

If you spend hours tuning the acoustic Tanpura and carefully listen to it, you would start noticing the interferences that emerge out of electronic Tanpura and would not primarily depend on it as your canvas.

The mental state in which an artist has to go to tune a Tanpura is pre-requisite to present authentic music. If you just casually sit on stage, turn on your electronic Tanpura and start, you are not doing your pre-concert homework. Athletes need warmup before they actually do the drill. A musician needs to dive within his or her own sonic and emotional sensitivity which is essential for sharing it with the audience. When artists use electronic Tanpura, they are sidetracking this important phase of the performance which reflects very much in the quality of the music that they present.

Most of the musicians know this. They know that the Tanpura is their playground. Many musicians are performing sitting in their houses because of the lockdown; still, they find it difficult to use an acoustic Tanpura. If one can invite accompanists for Tabla or Harmonium, getting a Tanpura player is not that difficult.

As a rule of thumb, if I and Dakshayani do not see an acouctic Tanpura, we just walk out or in these days, close the tab. Listening to an archival recording is much better.





15 responses to “Dear Indian Classical Musicians, Either Use a Tanpura Or Disassociate With Your Lineage!”

  1. Sangeeta Avatar

    I do agree . Mostly musicians find the digital tanpura more convenient but there is no comparison between manually playing the tanpura & electronic tanpura rather it can not acoustic tanpura has a good resonance. A real atmosphere can be created by an aucaustic tanpura only..

    1. Mandar Karanjkar Avatar

      Sangeeta Ji,

      Glad to hear to practitioners like you who use and acoustic Tanpura.

  2. नितीन आपटे Avatar
    नितीन आपटे

    मस्त. तानपुरा किती महत्त्वाचा हे समजलं. संगीतातलं काहीच समजत नाही फण लेख आवडला. मंदार अभिनंदन.

    1. Mandar Karanjkar Avatar

      धन्यवाद सर!

  3. Rigved Deshpande Avatar
    Rigved Deshpande

    Well articulated Mandar👍

    1. Mandar Karanjkar Avatar

      Thanks so much Rigved!

  4. Tapas Maji Avatar

    Thanks. How would you rate tanpura accompaniment in HCM?

  5. Paulami Deshmukh Avatar
    Paulami Deshmukh

    Well articulated.

  6. Shyam Kalyan Avatar
    Shyam Kalyan

    Hello Mandar Ji,

    As much as your point stated here is relevant, can we also wonder on the ‘what if ?’ that hides on the other side of the coin. While many may not be using an acoustic Tanpura, one reason for youngsters is that, may be they have not been enough exposed to the ‘tuning’ of it. I do not know what is your take on it, but would you be open to being a coach (without any judgements on his/her musical background) for teaching proper tuning and nuances if a sincere students walks upto you to just learn to tune this deceptively simple instrument ? It is said one lamp lights the other and the other can light many.

    1. Mandar Karanjkar Avatar

      Namaskar Shyam Ji (if that is your real name) 🙂

      I would be most happy to do it. In fact, quite a few individuals do come to learn more about Tanpuras. I am against all the separation – based on gharanas, lineage, experience, etc. and welcome anyone with open heart.


  7. Atik Avatar

    Very detailed and true article 👏👏👏

  8. Roshan Francis Martis Avatar
    Roshan Francis Martis

    Absolutely right! I’m am a student of Hindustani Classical Vocal Music for the past 27 years, and I know how lively the acoustic Tanpura sounds! Singing with the Tanpura is an art indeed. Ustad Amir Khansaheb was an expert in this art! He introduced Six Stringed Tanpura into Hindustani Classical Music. Thanks for the article. Please keep sharing your views. God bless 💕

    1. Mandar Karanjkar Avatar

      Thanks Roshan! Glad to see your love for Tanpuras 🙂

  9. Anustup Bhattacharyya Avatar
    Anustup Bhattacharyya

    Someone had to say this, atlast. I find artists more interested in having a Bose speaker coupled with an Iphone for singing at home or in concerts, whereas a wooden tanpura is no comparison to the almost dead devoid-of-harmonics sound of the electronic tanpura/s. I am an instrumental musician myself and I have seen how the entire mood gets set in a recital when the wooden tanpura is used. I think its time musicians propagate the usage of Tanpura in the best possible way.

    Pity that most of the younger music students cannot handle the tanpura or tune it properly, often singing with a badly-tuned tanpura.

  10. GPK MUSIC Avatar

    Beautiful message and very useful lesson for the Musicians and upcoming generation’s..Ya it’s very true the aAcoustic Tambura is Instills a natural desire to learn..and we are really blessed to listening the Sound naturally..and great chance to learn and perform with Acoustic Tambura..Thanks for the Useful Message..👍👍✋

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